Fraud Prevention

The Leiden Law School is taking additional measures to prevent examination fraud. Existing measures will be enforced more strictly.

Examination Fraud

A student who commits fraud during an examination harms his or her fellow students as well as the university. Examination fraud diminishes the value of the diploma and thereby damages the reputation of the Law School. With the prevalence of smart phones and the rising use of smart watches, the risk of fraud has increased. Leiden Law School is therefore taking additional measures to prevent fraud. Existing measures will be enforced more strictly. The examiner and/or the Board of Examiners will impose sanctions against students who cheat anyway.

What does Leiden Law School consider fraudulent behaviour?

The rules and regulations of the Board of Examiners stipulate fraud as “any action (including plagiarism), omission or intention (including incitement) that partially or entirely impedes the rightful assessment of a person’s knowledge, insight, skills, (professional) attitude and reflection. In addition to plagiarism, this definition therefore includes copying someone else’s work, hand signalling, the use of unauthorised notes or coding in materials that may be consulted, the use of non-permitted items, for example smart phones or smart watches, and completing an answer with the help of a fellow student whilst queuing to submit your exam papers. 

Which measures apply?

  • All written examinations will be handed out only when you are seated. In order to avoid this taking away from your time to complete the exam, you will need to ensure that you arrive on time. Depending on the number of participants, the room or hall will open 10-15 minutes prior to the start of the examination so you can sit down.
  • Examinations that have different versions will have coloured cover pages, each version a different colour.
  • There will be a thorough check as to whether you are entitled to participate in the examination. This check also applies to your proof of identity. 
  • Of course, you may only have the permitted examination materials on your desk. The invigilators will check this in person at every desk. They will also make sure there are no unauthorised notes, underlines, coding and such like in the materials.
  • Electronic communication devices, such as smart phones and smart watches, are not permitted. You must switch these off, store them in your bag and close the bag. Again, the invigilators will monitor this strictly.
  • You will need to put your coat and bag (as other facilities are often lacking) next to your desk, so that they are out of reach. You may not hang these on (the back of) your seat.
  • Latecomers are currently permitted to enter the examination room until one hour after the scheduled start time of the exam. Concurrently, you may not finish and leave the examination any earlier than one hour after the scheduled start time.
  • Should you need to use the toilet, you must raise your hand and wait to receive permission to go. You must ensure that you cover your work before leaving your seat, so that fellow students cannot see your answers. Obviously, you may not bring any electronic devices to the toilet.

For further information please see the Course & Examination Regulations for bachelor’s and master’s programmes


What are the sanctions?

Any student committing fraud will be excluded from further participation in the examination by the examiner and will receive a grade of 1. The examiner may ask you to leave behind any materials in your possession that may be relevant for the assessment of the irregularity or fraud. You are required to give effect to such a request. (The items will be given back to you after a reasonable period of time.) Each instance of fraud is reported to the Board of Examiners.

The Board of Examiners may also, in case of fraud, award a grade of 1 or (especially relevant when the fraud was discovered only after the examination) declare the examination result invalid. The Board of Examiners may then also exclude you from participation in the examination for which fraud was determined, or from participation in one or more (other) examinations. They may even exclude you from access to courses and examinations of one or more programmes offered by the Law School. The period of exclusion from participation may last up to one year.

Any courses and examinations taken and completed elsewhere during the term of exclusion (including essays, papers and theses completed with a passing grade) can under no circumstance be recognised by the Law School. An entry will be made in your personal electronic file of any disciplinary measure as intended here. In the case of serious fraud the Board of Examiners may propose to the university’s Executive Board to terminate your registration for the degree programme indefinitely.

How can I prevent fraud?

This is very simple. You do not have to do anything more than to ensure that you are well aware of the rules and instructions you must abide by as a student when participating in examinations, and act accordingly. When in doubt please consult the examiner.

Will there be any further measures?

Yes, but in order to ensure proper implementation several pilots will be held first. In light of this, the Law School has already conducted a trial enforcing stricter regulation of toilet visits during examinations. Another trial has been held allocating seating by name.  

For information in Dutch, please click here  

Last Modified: 09-12-2015